I use Manjaro Linux with the tiling window manager i3.
For taking notes, I use org-mode in Spacemacs.
It is simple, has Vim keybindings, and can render inline LaTeX fine.
I also use Spacemacs to write LaTeX documents.
I write lots of code in Vim, helped by YouCompleteMe
installed with vim-plug. Here is my .vimrc.
For more complex projects, the open source version of
Visual Studio Code is fine,
especially for remote development over SSH.
Of course, all of the above support Vim keybindings.
For web browsing, I use Firefox with the extensions:
Tree Style Tab,
Enhancer for Youtube
and uBlock Origin.
I have a 2019 Asus Zenbook 13. It’s very portable, Linux worked out of the box,
and the battery lasts for ~8h of work. The keyboard is awful, though.
When working from my desk,
I use a wireless Microsoft Ergonomic Sculpt keyboard, and an external vertical monitor.
This setup is great for reading papers.